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The concept of  inner teacher or inner being has two different branches: the Platonism on the one hand and the Bible on the other.
According to the Philosophy of Plato the entities, that is, the beings; they belong to the sensible or physical world, for example the living beings and the objects; or to the intelligible world or world of ideas, to this world belong the genres and the essences, as "the beautiful", "the just", the soul.
From the first world we acquire knowledge through the physical senses, from the second we acquire knowledge through the contemplation of reason. For St. Augustine, who resume the ideas of Plato, the truths of the intelligible world are already somehow inside us, in that man or inner teacher.
San Agustin wrote: "About all the things we understand, it is not the speaker that resonates outside, but the truth that presides within the mind itself, which we consult, perhaps because we have been warned by the words to which we consult it. But the one who teaches is the one consulted, of whom it has been said that he dwells within the interior of man, Christ, that is, the immutable virtue and eternal wisdom of God. " Chapter XI, Book The Teacher.
St. Augustine also explained: "About the colors we consult the light ... about the things that are understood, we consult, instead, through reason, the inner truth", Chapter XII, The Master.
In the New Testament, the spirit is a grace and it is through this spirit that we receive the knowledge of the divine, the transcendent, the spirit is our inner teacher. The spirit is identified in the Old Testament with the propensity to acquire wisdom or science.
In the Gospels there are references to the inner teacher:"I pray that out of his glorious riches he may strengthen you with power through his Spirit in your inner being", Ephesians 3:16; also: "But you are not to be called Master, for you have one Teacher, and you are all brothers. And do not call anyone on earth father, for you have one Father, and he is in heaven. Nor are you to be called instructors, for you have one Instructor, the Messiah"; Matthew 23:8-9.

Plato was a disciple of Socrates, Plato is credited with the authorship of "The Banquet," "Republic" and "Phaedo." As well as for Jesus, his method of teaching were the parables, for Plato is the Socratic Method or Mayeutic dialogues. The Phaedo is a dialogue, that tells the last moments of the life of Socrates and it is at this time that the teacher of Plato gives to his friends and disciples his final teachings: the immortality of the soul and life after death.
The theses of Plato to demonstrate the immortality of the soul are:
1) When there are two opposites, the one implies the other, such as sleeping and being awake are contrary. Awakening comes from sleeping and vice versa. In analogy, dying and living are opposites. According to Plato, this would mean that the livings come from the deads and vice versa.
2) The knowledge by analogy, that is to say "learning" in many cases, would only be a remembering. That is, we carry with us a prior knowledge of the things, so when a knowledge is acquired this brings another that would not be but from a "memory" of another life.
3) The existence of the plane of the essences or the world of the ideas, that is to say, exists by itself "the good", "the beautiful". The soul according to Platon would oscillate between two planes the physical (substances) and that of the essences (ideas). Being the first temporary and changeable and the other eternal.
The meditation according to Plato consists in separating the soul from the body, concentrating the soul in itself. Thence, he affirms:

"Those who philosophize in the correct sense of the word are exercised in dying"
Book Phaedo, of Plato.

Why does God allow evil? If God is eternal and omnipotent why evil exists? In philosophy, the existence of evil supposes for some authors the denial of God. To understand the problem of evil frst we must understand the metaphysics of Aristotle. Aristotle explains the difference between the act (the existence) and the potency(the capacity to do something). Aristoteles argues that the act of the good is better than the potency of the good, because in act we are sick or healthy but potentially we can be either healthy or sick, in the act of the good it cannot be simultaneously the opposites, they mutually excluded. This means that the act is more perfect and complete than the potency. On the other hand, in the evil the act is worse than the potency, in other words, there is a loss in the process from the later to the previous, at some point of the process we arrive at a good.
From this follows a conclusion that is very important for the Theology of Thomas Aquinas: "Evil does not exist separate from the sensible objects. "Consequently, between the primordial and eternal things, there is neither evil nor error nor corruption". Book IX, Chapter IX, Book of Metaphysics of Aristotle. Thomas Aquinas explains that evil needs a good as a support or base because every being is good, good is a nature because it is the final cause of the beings: the fruit is good when it is mature, the house It's good when it's finished. As for the evil Thomas Aquinas says: "we say bad to the man deprived of virtue." That is, for Metaphysics there is no "ontological evil" and this idea is retaken by Thomas Aquinas and St. Augustine in the scholastic philosophy.
San Agustin in his book Confessions analyzes what is the time and why evil exists. As for evil, he concludes saying that it exists simply because there is free will, because we have freedom of choice, from there the affirmation in the Bible that says:

God made man from the beginning, and left him in the hand of his own counsel.
Ecclesiasticus (The book of Sirach) 15:14

 

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    The latest version of the tractate in spanish retired from Editorial Dunken on July 11, 2014

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