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The book of Psalms begins with the Psalm of the two ways, is the first and most important Psalm and synthesis of ethics in the Old Testament. The teaching of the Psalm contains two parts:
1) The two roads:
Good and evil are mentalities, moods of choosing. We choose between the righteousness and the sin. The good is to act by ethical principles, the Golden rule. The path of the good is known as a righteous life. Evil is practice the sin.

Blessed is the one
who does not walk in step with the wicked
or stand in the way that sinners take
or sit in the company of mockers
but whose delight is in the Law of the Lord,
and who meditates on his law day and night.


2) The law of the harvest and the sowing: Two roads, two destinations. This is so because of the law of the sowing and reaping that is present in the last part of the psalm. The Law of the sowing and reaping is a cosmic and universal law of returns, that is to say of prizes and punishments, of learning, of balance. This Law punishes the error and rewards the hit in the mark. The Psalm reflects a strong resemblance with the 4 Beatitudes of the Gospel of Luke 6: 20-23 and the four curses in Luke 6: 24-26. 
The beatitude is edifying, progressive and gives fruits of blessing, the righteous or just man is compared with the tree that well-planted bears its fruit:

That person is like a tree planted by streams of water,
wich shields its fruit in season
and whose leaf does not wither-
whatever they do prospers

 The misfortune is unjust, retardant, involutive and erroneous: the wicked are compared with the straw that the wind carries. The unfortunate or sinner is tied to the vicissitudes of destiny (wind) and does not depend on his effort or virtue:

Not so the wicked!
They are like chaff
that the wind blows away.
Therefore the wicked will not stand in the judgment,
nor sinners in the assembly of the righteous.
For the Lord watches over the way of the righteous,
but the way of the wicked leads to destruction.


Jesus presents us in the gospel the law of retaliation in Matthew 5:38: "You have heard that it was said: Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth".The law of the talion belongs to one of the old laws of the Hamurabi Code and is a clear case of practical application of Justice.
Aristotle defines Justice as "giving and receiving proportionally." Although it is present in the Old Testament, the promulgation of the 10 commandments by Moses represents an advance against the Code of Hamurabi, that is, the Law of Moses has as one of its aims to replace the old Babylonian Law.
In practical terms, the law of retaliation exposes the practical problem of the application of justice, although Aristotle explains that justice is general friendship and that the goal of justice is to maintain equality before the society, about justice affirms that vice can to pass as virtue, for example, rigor can be shown as Justice; in certain cases the application of this law can be a form of rigor. Plato also tells us about a problem with the application of this Law: "there is no greater injustice than to appear just without being". Justice in certain cases can be a mask. The law of talion for its exposure and simplicity presents us this problem.
That is why Jesus rejects this law as an insufficiency with the mercy and holds:"But I tell you, do not resist an evil person. If anyone slaps you on the right cheek, turn to them the other cheek also. And if anyone wants to sue you and take your shirt, hand over your coat as well. If anyone forces you to go one mile, go with them two miles. Give to the one who asks you, and do not turn away from the one who wants to borrow from you", Matthew 5:39-42.
Jesus tells us that those who live according to the spirit are exempt from the fulfillment of the Law. Jesus carries all the human actions resume in the mercy (kindness, affability, benevolence). The beatitude and in this case the mercy are the best and what exceeds all human law.

The Bible teach us to live the spiritual gifts, to sow in the spirit as is explained in Galatians 6:8: "Who sows in the spirit, will from the spirit reap eternal life". Those who live according to the spirit are free from the Law of Moses: "We have been released from the Law so that we serve in the new way of the Spirit, and not in the old way of the written code", Romans 7:6. The spiritual gifts are perfections, excellences, perfect virtues: "Be perfect, therefore, as your heavenly Father is perfect", Matthew 5:48.
The seven gifts of the spirit are: Fear of God (constancy, firmness, devotion, equanimity), mercy (kindness, affability, benevolence), the spiritual gift of fortitude or continuous improvement, the spiritual gift of counsel (listen, meditate, decide), the gift of wisdom , the gift of knowldge (progressive thinking), the gift of discernment.
To sow in the spirit is to acquire wisdom, to retain it that is to say to keep it always present and put it into practice with constancy, the constancy is the spiritual gift of Fear of the Lord or Serenity as the parable of the sower explains. Sowing in the spirit is also seeking the correct and the best, the correct thing by the gift of counsel and the best by the perseverance and the golden rule.
The goal of the spiritual life are: holiness, eternal life ("this is eternal life, that they may know you, the only true God", John 17:3) and communion as is expressed in the Acts of the Apostles:
"All the believers were one in heart and mind. No one claimed that any of their possessions was their own, but they shared everything they had". Acts 4:32
Communion means "life in common", it is the concretion of the commandment of love (love your neighbor as yourself, Matthew 22:39) and it is intimately associated with the fruits of the spirit, accompanies and perfects them; the communion is a bliss, a maturation, a social fruit. The communion is more than common good, it implies concord, that is political friendship (Aristotle) or friendship between people as citizens of the same community, communion implies that people do not have needs and are governed by the wisest, the spiritual men: "The spiritual man makes judgments about all things, but he himself is not subject to any man's judgment", 1 Corinthians 2:15.
The communion is a fundamentally an ethical or spiritual concept and has its correlate in the Eucharist, it is not the result of repentance or forgiveness, or the administration of a particular rite, but of a decision of the people to live in that way, united to a certain grace or gift.

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  • New book retired from Editorial
    Friday, 11 July 2014 17:08
    New book retired from Editorial

    The latest version of the tractate in spanish retired from Editorial Dunken on July 11, 2014

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    Friday, 11 July 2014 17:29
    The new book in Editorial Dunken

    You can buy the lastest version of the tractate more complete than the free version in the web in Editorial Dunken, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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    Tuesday, 15 July 2014 11:05
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