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In the Gospels of Luke and Matthew there is a description of the sermon of the mountain.
Matthew teach to us the 8 beatitudes (Matthew 5:1-12) but in the Gospel of Luke (Luke 6:20-26) there is a difference: he teach us the "ventures": there are 4 beatitudes (Luke 6:20-23) and 4 misfortunes (Luke 6:24-26).
Remember that in the Gospel of Luke we have the teaching of the Parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke 10:29), this parable teaches us that we sin, like the Levite who passes by or we live righteously as the Samaritan, we all have to choose between good and evil, between the path of rectitude and the sin. That is why there are 4 blessings and 4 curses.
Luke speaks of "ventures" and with this begins the revelation of the mystery of the Kingdom of God. The beatitudes express to us the promises of the kingdom of God and base of all hope. In the misadventures there is a warning: the danger of wealth and the false happiness.
The misfortunes explain to us that there is a false happiness, an opinion of happiness and this happens because we follow the false good, the idolatry of money. Remember the triple division of man: body, soul and spirit; the beatitudes are referred to the spiritual man (the spirit prevails) instead the misfortunes to the natural man (the body prevails). We have to follow the dictates of the spirit or the flesh.
The apostle Paul teach about the triple division of man: "those who live according to the flesh have their minds set on what the flesh desires; but those who live in accordance with the spirit have their minds set on what the spirit desires. The mind governed by the flesh is death, but the mind governed by the spirit is life and peace. The mind governed by the flesh is hostile to God; it does not submit to God's law, nor can it do so" Romans 8:5-8.
Christ calls us to follow the good happiness, not the happiness of appearances.
The true good of man is the eternal life, or to say the true knowledge of God, not happiness. The gospel of Luke is the gospel of mercy but is fundamentally an ethical gospel, which calls us to a change: from the sin to the righteous life (spiritual gift of righteousness), the life in grace of God.

The concept of happiness according to classical authors:
The happiness in relation with the activity of the soul:
Aristotle begins his work with his book "About the soul", in which he explains that "the soul is the cause and the principle of the living body" Cap 4 A3, also that the soul is the perfection of the body and the first mobile motor. From then all his books are developed from this study of the soul.
In Nicomachean Ethics Book I he wrote: "we call perfect what is always chosen by itself and never for anything else, it seems to be, above all, happiness, because we chose it for itself", "the happiness is a certain activity of the soul according to the virtue", Book I c 9; "happiness is the most perfect good", "happiness is the reward of virtue", then in Rhetoric he would affirm: "happiness  is the wellness accompanied by virtue, or the possession of sufficient means to live, or the very pleasant life together with the security of continuing in it, or the good state of the riches and the bodies ", Book I cap V.
The happiness in relation with the spirit:
Thomas Aquinas, father of the scholastic school, begins with his studies with God, not from the soul and affirms in the Summa Theologiae: "God is the happiness of man", "eternal happiness consists in the vision of God", "the happiness is what everyone wants unanimously". The scholastic philosophy puts happiness in relation with God and fundamentally in the contemplation of God.
In the Bible the ecclesiastes teaches us: "Happiness is for those who fear God", Ecclesiastes 8:12. The Bible, and in particular the old testament, place happiness in the hands of those people who are devout and predisposed to acquire wisdom by constancy; let´s remember that the fear of God as a spiritual gift is devotion, firmness, constancy, equanimity, stability.
In the New Testament, in the Gospels, in Luke 6: 20-23 and in Matthew 5: 3-12, Christ in the Sermon of the Mount talks about the Beatitudes and puts happiness in the hope of the blessed life and the fulfillment of the kingdom of God, all the beatitudes begin with the word "happy".
The concepts of happiness are many and vary according to the classical authors. Each reader chooses with which concept of happiness stays.


There is not in the classical Greek authors, Aristotle and Plato, in particular, a study on the virtue of hope. Is with the gospels and the scholastic philosophy that a knowledge about this virtue is reached.
The theological virtue of hope is a virtue infused by the holy spirit according to the Thomistic school (scholastic philosophy) and one of the seven Christian virtues that are: temperance, fortitude, justice, prudence, faith, Charity and hope.
In the Christian religion, hope is one of the three gifts, together with the justification and faith that are received in the sacrament of Baptism. Faith is accepting the creed and the hope is the trust in receiving the good of the eternal life and the blessings of the beatitudes. The virtue of hope in practice is a virtue that assists us in the concrete difficulties of life. Justification completes the infused virtues and prepares the soul for the life in grace.
The Epistle to the Hebrews tells us about the infused virtues of faith and hope, the letter, although it is from an unknown author, but probably Paul, the epistle is a homily and an exhortation to keep the Faith.
In the lettet the autor expresses: we want each of you to show this same diligence to the very end, so that what you hope for may be fully realized. We do not want you to become lazy, but to imitate those who through faith and patience inherit what has been promised. Hebrews 6:11-12
The author of the epistle to the Hebrews teaches us that this virtue completes and perfects Charity (love for the good or love perfected by the nature of the good) and Faith. Continuing this idea the hope is a spiritual gift (teological concept).
In the epistle the author continues and teach: We have this hope as an anchor for the soul, firm and secure. Hebrews 6:19
In the letter the author talks about hope and teach us that hope implies zeal and patience to achieve the promises of the Beatitudes. Let us remember that the beatitudes besides being  the description of God' s plan  are promises of blessing, hope seeks the long term, not the short one.
The virtue of hope, although it is understood to orders man to the divine, depends on the life in grace, in essence there is no hope for those who practice error. Hope is not realized in the afterlife, it is realized in the eternal life, which is in essence the true promise of the beatitudes: "This is eternal life, that they may know you the only true God", John 17 :3.


  • New book retired from Editorial
    Friday, 11 July 2014 17:08
    New book retired from Editorial

    The latest version of the tractate in spanish retired from Editorial Dunken on July 11, 2014

  • The new book in Editorial Dunken
    Friday, 11 July 2014 17:29
    The new book in Editorial Dunken

    You can buy the lastest version of the tractate more complete than the free version in the web in Editorial Dunken, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

  • Interview in Radio Fm Signs 92.5
    Tuesday, 15 July 2014 11:05
    Interview in Radio Fm Signs 92.5

    My interview in the program of Estela, the Pandora`s Box, on Fm Signs. Tuesday 10 to 11 a.m. in 92.5 Fm. Link to the radio:

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