The art of listening is also known as Exact Justice, this is in the books of Aristotle or as Spiritual Gift of Council this is according to the scholastic books, Tomas de Aquino for example.
The characteristics of the art of listening are precision and accuracy, the exact justice seeks the truth. Now, if the characteristics of the Spiritual Gift of Counsel are precision and accuracy. What is the Justice? What is the sin?
The answer is very simple: Justice and sin are forms of error. The teaching of error is called heresy. Heretic means master of error.
The Golden Rule, and the Gift of Counsel indicate the right path, to do the correct thing because it is the correct thing, the virtues or values, the commandments are forms of error. We are called to live the spiritual gifts inherit from God.
Aristotle reminds us in his book Nicomachean Ethics that friendship is not only necessary but beautiful.
He tells us in his work that there are different types of friendship: the friendship based on likeness, utility or virtue.
Benevolence is amability, kindness, affability, benediction. Benevolence is an excellent virtue. Benevolence has as its goal not the one who experiences it but the one to whom it is direction. Aristotle tells us that the benevolent "desires" but the friend "does". Desire is a form of beginning. Every friend is benevolent but not all benevolent is a friend, concludes Aristotle.
Ethics consists in the study of the good and the evil. Basically good and evil are discernments, mentalities, one mentality is benevolent, edifyng, progressive this mentality is call "good mentality." There is another that is destructive, chaotic, unfair, we call this "bad mentality".
We live according to the spirit, that is, we live righteously; or we live according to the flesh, that is, we sin, as the Gospels teach us. The Parabola of the Good Samaritan tells us that in front of the neighbor we are righteous or sinful, we choose. In this sense there are no "grays", things are either "white" or "black".
We hit or we fail, we are false or truthful. In this consist the study of ethics.
The latest version of the tractate in spanish retired from Editorial Dunken on July 11, 2014
You can buy the lastest version of the tractate more complete than the free version in the web in Editorial Dunken, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
My interview in the program of Estela, the Pandora`s Box, on Fm Signs. Tuesday 10 to 11 a.m. in 92.5 Fm. Link to the radio: http://www.fmsignos.com.ar/index.html