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Jesus presents us in the gospel the law of retaliation in Matthew 5:38: "You have heard that it was said: Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth".The law of the talion belongs to one of the old laws of the Hamurabi Code and is a clear case of practical application of Justice.
Aristotle defines Justice as "giving and receiving proportionally." Although it is present in the Old Testament, the promulgation of the 10 commandments by Moses represents an advance against the Code of Hamurabi, that is, the Law of Moses has as one of its aims to replace the old Babylonian Law.
In practical terms, the law of retaliation exposes the practical problem of the application of justice, although Aristotle explains that justice is general friendship and that the goal of justice is to maintain equality before the society, about justice affirms that vice can to pass as virtue, for example, rigor can be shown as Justice; in certain cases the application of this law can be a form of rigor. Plato also tells us about a problem with the application of this Law: "there is no greater injustice than to appear just without being". Justice in certain cases can be a mask. The law of talion for its exposure and simplicity presents us this problem.
That is why Jesus rejects this law as an insufficiency with the mercy and holds:"But I tell you, do not resist an evil person. If anyone slaps you on the right cheek, turn to them the other cheek also. And if anyone wants to sue you and take your shirt, hand over your coat as well. If anyone forces you to go one mile, go with them two miles. Give to the one who asks you, and do not turn away from the one who wants to borrow from you", Matthew 5:39-42.
Jesus tells us that those who live according to the spirit are exempt from the fulfillment of the Law. Jesus carries all the human actions resume in the mercy (kindness, affability, benevolence). The beatitude and in this case the mercy are the best and what exceeds all human law.

The Bible teach us to live the spiritual gifts, to sow in the spirit as is explained in Galatians 6:8: "Who sows in the spirit, will from the spirit reap eternal life". Those who live according to the spirit are free from the Law of Moses: "We have been released from the Law so that we serve in the new way of the Spirit, and not in the old way of the written code", Romans 7:6. The spiritual gifts are perfections, excellences, perfect virtues: "Be perfect, therefore, as your heavenly Father is perfect", Matthew 5:48.
The seven gifts of the spirit are: Fear of God (constancy, firmness, devotion, equanimity), mercy (kindness, affability, benevolence), the spiritual gift of fortitude or continuous improvement, the spiritual gift of counsel (listen, meditate, decide), the gift of wisdom , the gift of knowldge (progressive thinking), the gift of discernment.
To sow in the spirit is to acquire wisdom, to retain it that is to say to keep it always present and put it into practice with constancy, the constancy is the spiritual gift of Fear of the Lord or Serenity as the parable of the sower explains. Sowing in the spirit is also seeking the correct and the best, the correct thing by the gift of counsel and the best by the perseverance and the golden rule.
The goal of the spiritual life are: holiness, eternal life ("this is eternal life, that they may know you, the only true God", John 17:3) and communion as is expressed in the Acts of the Apostles:
"All the believers were one in heart and mind. No one claimed that any of their possessions was their own, but they shared everything they had". Acts 4:32
Communion means "life in common", it is the concretion of the commandment of love (love your neighbor as yourself, Matthew 22:39) and it is intimately associated with the fruits of the spirit, accompanies and perfects them; the communion is a bliss, a maturation, a social fruit. The communion is more than common good, it implies concord, that is political friendship (Aristotle) or friendship between people as citizens of the same community, communion implies that people do not have needs and are governed by the wisest, the spiritual men: "The spiritual man makes judgments about all things, but he himself is not subject to any man's judgment", 1 Corinthians 2:15.
The communion is a fundamentally an ethical or spiritual concept and has its correlate in the Eucharist, it is not the result of repentance or forgiveness, or the administration of a particular rite, but of a decision of the people to live in that way, united to a certain grace or gift.

Heresy means the teaching of the error and heretic, the person who teaches it, that is to say Master of the error. The concept of heresy is fundamentally an ethical and philosophical concept. The concept of heresy appears in the Letter to the Galatians 5:19: "The acts of the flesh are obvious: sexual immorality, impurity and debauchery; idolatry and witchcraft; hatred, discord, jealousy, fits of rage, selfish ambition, dissensions, heresy and envy, drunkeness, orgies".
In ethics there are two lifestyles:
1) to live according to the spirit, the righteous life that is to act always by principles, "do for others what you would like them to do for you", Matthew 7:12;
2) to live according to the flesh that is to practice sin.
Heresy is a fruit, a maturation of evil. In the book of Revelations we are teach about the typologies of personality that are adept to heresy: "Outisde are the dogs, those who practic magic arts, the sexually immoral, the murderers, the idolaters and everyone who loves and practices falsehood", Book of Revelations 22:15.
Heresy is the opposite of wisdom, understanding wisdom as the knowledge of the correct means to live. Wisdom comes from the art of listening, wisdom is the precise and the exact. Examples of wisdom that comes from listening are the teachings of Jesus:"Let any one of you who is whithout sin be the first to throw a stone to her", John 8:7, also "Give back to Caesar what is Caesar's, and to God what is God's", Matthew 22:21.
Taking into account this and as Thomas de Aquinas teaches: "Abstraction does not admit falsehood", heresy is not applicable to sciences and more precisely to the hard sciences such as mathematics or physics. In another sense Aristotle demonstrates in his book Metaphysics through the concepts of act and potence that between the primordial and eternal beings such as wisdom and mathematics, there is neither corruption nor falsity, that is, evil is not a nature, nor is its fruit the heresy a science, there is no evil or heresy in an ontological sense. Ontology is the branch of metaphysics that studies the beings as such, evil is presented to us as a deprivation: "bad is said to the man deprived of virtue," Thomas Aquinas. Heresy is not science, nor opinion, nor ignorance, are affirmations or denials that are presented to the reason as true.

 

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