Site dedicated to the study

of philosophy and ethics

Aristotle in his book Politics teach about the organization of man in community. Aristotle states: "political regime is an organization of the city, of its magistracies and especially of the one that has authority over all" Chapter 6 Book 3. Then he affirms: "all regimes that look at the common good are correct..., and that those who attend only to the particular of the rulers are erroneous and all of them are deviations from the righteous regime, because they are despotic and the city is the community of free men "C 6 L 3.
Aristotle enumerates the correct forms: monarchy, the government of only one; Aristocracy the government of few but more than one; and republic the government of the majority. The corresponding deviations are: tyranny, oligarchy and democracy. Aristotle enumerates and describes with its own problems the different forms of organization of a city (political), but he does not describe how the ethical or righteous regime arise and is manteined, wich is  the true end of the science about the social life and the organization of the human community , the politics.
Jesus explains to us in the Parable of the Good Samaritan that we sin or live righteously. The rectitude is always acting by ethical principles: "do for others what you would like them to do for you", Matthew 7:12. When the rectitude of men is imposed, the social rectitude generates a form of ethical community organization: the communion or life in common.
The communion is like God desires  men to live, communion is the empire of righteousness among men, communion is life in common because everything attends to concord (union of hearts) and to the common good, this is the only regime truly ethical either of one, of a few or of the majority. Such is the importance of the communion that is a sacrament within the Christian religion.
When men cease to be "precise and exact," that is, they abandon ethics, and practice the error, cultivating only the private interests and seeking the false goods, we never know when an evil may arrive and ravage and destroys the community; summarizing the problem of the error and the search of the false goods in a community Aristotle concludes:

"From the false goods will ever come a true evil", Book IV, C XII, Book Politics, Aristotle.

About wisdom Aristotle wrote in his book Metaphysics: "In the measure that it is the dominant and sovereign science, to which others, as if slaves were, do not replicate, it is fair to apply to the science of the end and the good, because in view of this the other things exist, but insofar as it has been defined as the science of the first causes and of the knowable by excellence, it is just as well that the science of the substance be the wisdom", Book III, Cap. 2.
For Aristotle, wisdom is fundamentally a science about the "know-how", that is, wisdom is practical prudence: for example, the architect is wise in his work, the doctor is wise in healing.
In scholastic philosophy the concept of wisdom is extended, it is not only a practical prudence, but also the most excellent essence and perfect virtue (spiritual gift).
Thomas Aquinas in his work Summa Theologiae defines: "God is the wisdom itself" and explains that the Word of God is "wisdom engendered" by the gift of counsel.
In spirituality we can know something by understanding its main characteristics, in the letter of the apostle James in the New Testament we have a description of the main characteristics of wisdom and, that the good that is a nature,  proceeds of wisdom:

"Who is wise and understanding among you? Let them show it by their good life, by deeds done in the humility that comes from wisdom", James 3:13.
"But the wisdom that comes form heaven is first pure, then peace-loving, considerate, full of mercy and good fruit, impartial and sincere", James 3:17

God is the wisest and most understood (gift of science). We can say that wisdom is a gift from God; a gift for St. Thomas is "delivery without duty of return", Question 38, A 2 (Summa Theologiae). The gifts are perfections.
The gift by excellence is love, but since God is the source of the good, "Only God is good", Mark 10:18; this love is the Love for the good, the wisdom and the good come from the love of God. God is the Charity itself: " Who does not love does not know God, because God is Charity", 1 John 4: 8

The theologians explain to us the difficulty that implies about saying who is God. Thomas Aquinas theologian and scholastic philosopher teaches us in the Summa Theologiae: "Do not pretend to achieve what you can not", Art 1 Q 1. Thomas Aquinas explains that the sacred science, the study of God is called Theology and that the goal of this science is the eternal happiness: "Sacred science revolves around God, so much so that it is called Theology, which is almost like saying Tractate about God." Art 7 Q 1.
Thomas Aquinas makes a special analysis: "Even when we can not say about what God is, in this sacred doctrine we take its effects, as a substitute for the definition to be able to analyze what in this doctrine is said of God." Art 7 Q 1 (Summa Theologiae). That is, we know God by his effects, that is, by his gifts, "the invisible of God is made comprehensible and visible through the created", Art 2 Q2 (Summa Theologiae).
The Bible affirm: "God is spirit", John 4:24 (A1 Q 3); "Be perfect as your heavenly Father is perfect," Matthew 5:48 (A 1 Q 4); "Let us make man in our image and likeness", Genesis 1:26 (A 3 Q4).
Theology is to say the study of God takes the Bible as revealed truth, that is why St. Augustine and St. Thomas affirm that God is the wisdom itself and that God is the origin of the perfections we observe in creation, we call these perfections gifts. The Kingdom of God is the empire, dominion, reign of the divine perfections, dominion of mercy, perseverance, wisdom. Following this idea the sense of spirituality is to reach the full resemblance to God, that is to say to be "full of the holy spirit" or to express it in another way the equality with saints, angels, archangels and other semidivine beings.
Thomas Aquinas concludes with a metaphor affirming: "The Holy Spirit is love, it will be love of love and spirit of the spirit", Question 37, A 1 (Summa Theologiae).


  • New book retired from Editorial
    Friday, 11 July 2014 17:08
    New book retired from Editorial

    The latest version of the tractate in spanish retired from Editorial Dunken on July 11, 2014

  • The new book in Editorial Dunken
    Friday, 11 July 2014 17:29
    The new book in Editorial Dunken

    You can buy the lastest version of the tractate more complete than the free version in the web in Editorial Dunken, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

  • Interview in Radio Fm Signs 92.5
    Tuesday, 15 July 2014 11:05
    Interview in Radio Fm Signs 92.5

    My interview in the program of Estela, the Pandora`s Box, on Fm Signs. Tuesday 10 to 11 a.m. in 92.5 Fm. Link to the radio:

Copyright V Gospel © 2014. All right reserved.